what is menstruation

What is Menstruation?

Menstruation, otherwise known as period, is a natural process that occurs in all women of reproductive age. It is a sign that the body is functioning normally and is associated with the hormone fluctuations which occur during the menstrual cycle.

Stages of Menstruation

The menstrual cycle is typically divided into four main stages: menstruation, follicular, ovulation, and luteal.

  • Menstruation – This is the most widely recognized stage of the menstrual cycle. This is when the lining of the uterus is shed and bleeding occurs.
  • Follicular – This is the stage immediately following menstruation, during which the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the development of a follicle.
  • Ovulation – During this phase, the mature follicle ruptures and releases an egg.
  • Luteal Phase – This is the last phase of the menstrual cycle and is caused by the surge in luteinizing hormone (LH). In this phase, the ovary produces progesterone, which helps prepare the uterus for pregnancy.

Symptoms of Menstruation

Common symptoms of menstruation include cramps, bloating, irritability, headaches, breast tenderness, and fatigue. Many people also experience an increase in appetite and cravings for certain foods during this time.

Menstrual Cycle Abnormalities

Some women experience menstrual cycle irregularities, including too-long or too-short cycles, irregular bleeding, and/or absent periods. These can be caused by a variety of factors, such as stress, hormonal imbalance, or an underlying health condition. If you are experiencing any menstrual cycle abnormalities, it is important to talk to your doctor.

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